G. E. M. Anscombe (—) of psychology. Her work on action, found mostly in her short book Intention, was a step in the direction of such a philosophy. Philosophical perplexity about intention begins with its appearance in three guises: intention for the future, as when I intend to complete this. Anscombe’s Intention () is one of the classics of 20th century .. Philosophy and Ethics by G.E.M. Anscombe (St. Andrews Studies in.
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Anscombe or Elizabeth Anscombewas a British  analytic philosopher. She wrote on the philosophy of mindphilosophy of actionphilosophical logicphilosophy of languageand ethics. She was a prominent figure of analytical Thomism.
Anscombe was a student g.e.m.anscombw Ludwig Wittgenstein and became an authority on his work and edited and translated many books drawn from his writings, above all his Philosophical Investigations. Anscombe’s article ” Modern Moral Philosophy ” introduced the term consequentialism into the language of analytic philosophy, and had a seminal influence on contemporary virtue ethics.
Her monograph Intention is generally recognised as her greatest and most influential work, and the continuing philosophical interest in the concepts of intentionactionand practical reasoning can be said to have taken its main impetus from this work. Both her mother and father were involved with v.e.m.anscombe. Her mother was a headmistress and her father went on to head a department at Dulwich College.
She remained a lifelong devout Catholic. In she married Peter Geachlike her a Roman Catholic convert.
Intention — G. E. M. Anscombe | Harvard University Press
He became, like her, a student of Wittgenstein and a distinguished British academic philosopher. Together they had three sons and four daughters. After graduating from Oxford, Anscombe was awarded a research fellowship for postgraduate study at Newnham College, Cambridgefrom to Her interest in Wittgenstein’s philosophy arose from reading the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus as an undergraduate.
She claimed to have conceived the idea of studying with Wittgenstein as soon as she opened the book in Blackwell’s and read section 5. Difference of objects I express by difference of signs. But what do I really see? How can I say that I see here anything more than a yellow expanse? I always hated phenomenalism and felt trapped by it. I couldn’t see my way out of it but I didn’t believe it.
It was no good pointing to difficulties about it, things which Russell found wrong with it, for example. The strength, the central nerve of it remained alive and raged achingly.
It was only in Wittgenstein’s classes in that I saw the nerve being extracted, the central thought “I have got this, and I define ‘yellow’ say as this” being effectively attacked. She became one of Wittgenstein’s favourite students and one of his closest friends.
His confidence in Anscombe’s understanding of his perspective is shown by his choice of her as translator of his Philosophical Investigations before she had learned German, for which purpose he arranged a stay in Vienna. Anscombe visited Wittgenstein many times after he left Cambridge inand travelled to Cambridge in April to visit him on his death bed.
Wittgenstein named her, along with Rush Rhees and Georg Henrik inention Wrightas his literary executorand after his death in she was responsible for editing, translating, and publishing many of Wittgenstein’s manuscripts and notebooks.
She g.e.m.ansdombe liberal colleagues with articles defending the Roman Catholic Church’s opposition to contraception in the s and early s. Later in life, she was arrested twice while protesting g.e.m.anwcombe an abortion clinic in Britain, after abortion had been legalised albeit with restrictions. Anscombe remained at Somerville College from to She was also known for her willingness to face fierce public controversy in the name of her Catholic faith. Inwhile a research fellow at the University of Oxfordshe protested Oxford’s decision to grant an honorary degree to Harry S.
Trumanintentoin she denounced as a mass murderer for his use of atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. She and three others voted against awarding the honour to Truman.
She would later defend her decision in a pamphlet. Anscombe was elected Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge inwhere she served until her retirement in In her later years, Anscombe suffered from heart disease, and was nearly killed in a car crash in She never fully recovered and she spent her last years in g.e.m.anscobe care of her family in Cambridge.
G. E. M. Anscombe (1919—2001)
She had not said where she was to be buried and the family chose what is now the Ascension Parish burial ground, as it was the nearest one to their home.
There was some difficulty in getting a full-size plot, where she could be buried without being cremated first. This was not possible in the new part of the cemetery, so the site finally obtained — after negotiation with Ely diocesan authorities — was that of an old grave, corner-to-corner with the plot where Wittgenstein had been buried half a century before.
As a young philosophy don, Anscombe acquired a reputation as a formidable debater. Inshe presented a paper at a meeting of Oxford’s Socratic Club in which she disputed C. Lewis ‘s argument that naturalism was self-refuting found in the third chapter of the original publication of his book Miracles.
Some associates of Lewis, primarily George Sayer and Derek Brewerhave remarked that Lewis lost the subsequent debate on her paper and that this loss was so humiliating that he abandoned theological argument and turned entirely to devotional writing and children’s literature.
The fact that Lewis rewrote that chapter, and rewrote it so that it now has those qualities [to address Anscombe’s objections], shows his honesty and seriousness. The meeting intentioon the Socratic Club at which I read my paper has been described by several of his friends as a horrible and g.e.m.anscomge experience which upset him very much. Neither Dr Havard who had Lewis and me to dinner a few weeks later nor Professor G.em.anscombe Bennet remembered any such feelings on Lewis’s part My own recollection is that it was an occasion of sober discussion of certain quite definite criticisms, which Lewis’ rethinking and rewriting g.e.m.xnscombe he thought was accurate.
I am inclined to construe the odd accounts of the matter by some of his friends — who seem itention to have been interested in the actual arguments or the subject-matter — as an interesting example of the phenomenon called ” projection “.
As a result of the debate, Lewis substantially rewrote chapter g.d.m.anscombe of Miracles for the paperback edition. Some of Anscombe’s most frequently cited works are translations, editions, and expositions of the work of her teacher Ludwig Wittgenstein, including an influential exegesis  of Wittgenstein’s book, the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.
This brought to the fore the importance of Gottlob Frege for Wittgenstein’s thought and, partly on that basis, attacked “positivist” interpretations of the work.
Her English translation of the book appeared simultaneously and remains standard. She went on to edit or co-edit several volumes of selections from his notebooks, co- translating many important works like Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics and Wittgenstein’s “sustained treatment” of G.
Moore ‘s epistemology, On Certainty . Her most important work is the monograph Intention Three volumes of collected papers were published in Another collection, Human Life, Action and Ethics appeared posthumously in The aim of Intention was to make plain the character of human action and will.
Anscombe approaches the matter through the concept of intentionwhich, as she notes, has three modes of appearance in our language:. She suggests that a true account must somehow connect these three uses of the concept, though later students of intention have sometimes denied this, and disputed some of the things she presupposes under the first and third headings.
It is clear though that it is the second that is crucial to her g.e.m.anscpmbe purpose, which is to comprehend the way in which human thought and understanding and conceptualisation relate to the “events in a man’s history”, or the goings on to which he is subject.
Rather than attempt to define intentions in abstraction from actionsthus taking the third heading first, Anscombe begins with the concept of an intentional action. This soon connected with the second heading. She says that what is up with a human being is an intentional action if the question “Why”, taken in a certain sense and evidently conceived as addressed to himhas application.
Anscombe was the first to clearly spell out that actions are intentional under some descriptions and not others. In her famous example, g.d.m.anscombe man’s action which we might observe as consisting in moving an arm up and down while holding a handle may be intentional under the description “pumping water” but not under other descriptions such as “contracting these muscles”, “tapping out this rhythm”, and so on.
This approach to action influenced Donald Davidson’s theory, despite the fact that Davidson went on to argue for a causal theory of action that Anscombe never accepted . Intention is also the classic source for the idea that there is a difference in ” direction of fit ” between cognitive states like beliefs and conative states like desire. Conative states do not describe the world, but aim to bring something about in the world.
Anscombe used the example of a shopping list to illustrate the difference. If the agent fails to buy what is listed, we do not say that the list is untrue or incorrect; we say that the mistake is in the action, not the desire. According to Anscombe, this difference in direction of fit is a major difference between speculative knowledge theoretical, empirical knowledge and practical knowledge knowledge of actions and morals.
Whereas “speculative knowledge” is “derived from the objects known”, practical knowledge is — in a phrase Anscombe lifts from Aquinas — “the cause of what it understands”. Anscombe made great contributions to ethics as well as g.em.anscombe. She is credited with having coined the term ” consequentialism “.
In her essay ” Modern Moral Philosophy “, Anscombe wrote:. The denial of any distinction between foreseen and intended consequences, as far as g.e.m.anscome is concerned, was not made by Sidgwick in developing any one ‘method of ethics’; he made this important move on behalf of everybody and just on its own account; and I think it plausible to suggest that this move on the part of Sidgwick explains the difference between old-fashioned Utilitarianism and the consequentialismas I name it, which marks him and every English academic moral philosopher since gg.e.m.anscombe.
Anscombe also introduced the idea of a set of facts being ‘brute relative g.d.m.anscombe some fact. When a set of facts xyz stands in this relation to a fact A, they are a subset out of inteniton range some subset among which holds if A holds.
Thus if A is the fact that I have paid for something, the brute facts might be that I have handed him a cheque for a sum which he has named as the price for the goods, saying that this is the payment, or that I gave him some cash at the time that he gave me the goods. There tends, according to Anscombe, to be an institutional context intenton gives its point to the description ‘A’, but of which ‘A’ is not itself a description: According to her, no brute facts xyz can generally be said to entail the fact A relative to which they are ‘brute’ except with the proviso “under normal circumstances”, for “one cannot mention all the things that were not the case, which would have made a difference if they had been.
Thus Anscombe’s account is not of a distinct class of facts, to be distinguished from another class, ‘institutional facts’: Following Anscombe’s lead, John Searle derived a sharper conception of ‘brute facts’ simply as non-mental facts to play the foundational role .ge.m.anscombe generate similar hierarchies in his philosophical account of speech acts and institutional reality .
Her paper “The First Person”  buttressed remarks by Wittgenstein in his Lectures on “Private Experience”  arguing for the now-notorious conclusion that the first-person pronoun, “I”, does not refer to anything not, e. Having shown by counter-example that ‘I’ does gg.e.m.anscombe refer to the body, Anscombe objected to the implied Cartesianism of its referring at all. The philosopher Candace Vogler says that Anscombe’s “strength” is that “‘when she is writing for [a] Catholic audience, she presumes they share certain fundamental beliefs,’ but she is equally willing to write for people who do not share her assumptions.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Philosophy of mind philosophy of action philosophical logic philosophy of language ethics. Brute facts ” under a description ” direction of fit modern revival of virtue ethics acting intentiion a description.
This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Institute on Religion and Public Life. Retrieved 9 November Anscombe, British Philosopher, Dies at 81″. G.e.anscombe New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 August American Academy of Arts and Sciences.